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Full Text Available Experimental studies of some properties influencing cracking and separation of palm kernel from the shell was conducted in a palm kernel dual processing machine. A mechanical cracking cum separating machine was developed for the study.


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The cracking unit consists of feed hopper, impeller shaft, cracking drum and impeller blade. The nut falls by gravity through the hopper channel into the cracking drum where the cracking process takes place through the help of impeller blades that flip the palm nut against the walls of cylindrical cracking drum. The mass of cracked nut flows through the separating unit that separates the kernel from the shell. The separation is induced by high current of air mass generated by an axial fan. A dura palm variety was selected and a total sample of eighteen thousand palm nuts were obtained and divided into two groups feed rates, A and B, of eight thousand and ten thousand palm nuts respectively.

Sample groups A and B were further divided into five sub — groups of four hundred and five hundred palm kernel nuts. Each sub group feed rate was replicated four times at different shaft speeds , , , and rpm. Results showed that cracking efficiencies increased with respect to speed. Un-cracked nuts percentage ranged from 1. Cracking time for both feed rates decreased with shaft speed. Throughput capacity of The results of this study shows that moisture content, engine speed and feed rate are significant parameters that influence cracking of nuts and separation of palm kernel from the shell.

Viscozyme L pretreatment on palm kernels improved the aroma of palm kernel oil after kernel roasting. With an interest to enhance the aroma of palm kernel oil PKO , Viscozyme L, an enzyme complex containing a wide range of carbohydrases, was applied to alter the carbohydrates in palm kernels PK to modulate the formation of volatiles upon kernel roasting. After Viscozyme treatment, the content of simple sugars and free amino acids in PK increased by 4.

After kernel roasting and oil extraction, significantly more 2,5-dimethylfuran, 2-[ methylthio methyl]-furan, 1- 2-furanyl -ethanone, 1- 2-furyl propanone, 5-methylfurancarboxaldehyde and 2-acetylmethylfuran but less 2-furanmethanol and 2-furanmethanol acetate were found in treated PKO; the correlation between their formation and simple sugar profile was estimated by using partial least square regression PLS1.

Argentina: palm oil import values 2002-2016

Obvious differences in pyrroles and Strecker aldehydes were also found between the control and treated PKOs. Such changes in volatiles translated into distinct sensory attributes, whereby treated PKO was more caramelic and burnt after aqueous extraction and more nutty, roasty, caramelic and smoky after solvent extraction. All rights reserved. Cracked palm kernel is a mixture of kernels , broken shells, dusts and other impurities. Ecology and behaviour of Palm-nut Vultures Gypohierax angolensis Populations of many vulture species have undergone substantial declines.

The Palm-nut Vulture Gypohierax angolensis has peculiar ecological characteristics, feeding on palm This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize with palm kernel meal on nutrient composition, fatty acid profile and sensory qualities of the meat of turkeys fed the dietary treatments.

Six dietary treatments were formulated using palm kernel meal to replace maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and percent. It was a completely randomized design Design and construction of palm kernel cracking and separation Design and construction of palm kernel cracking and separation machines. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. JO Nordiana, K Bioconversion of palm kernel meal for aquaculture: Experiences Apr 17, Contamination of palm kernel meal with Aspergillus Blending of palm oil, palm stearin and palm kernel oil in the preparation of table and pastry margarine.

The blends were then studied for their physical properties such as melting point m. Results showed that palm stearin increased the blends melting point while palm kernel oil reduced it. To produce table margarine with melting point m. Analysis of total hydrogen content in palm oil and palm kernel oil A fast and non-destructive technique based on thermal neutron moderation has been used for determining the total hydrogen content in two types of red palm oil dzomi and amidze and palm kernel oil produced by traditio-nal methods in Ghana.

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An equipment consisting of an Am-Be neutron source and 3He neutron Modelling microwave heating of discrete samples of oil palm kernels. The simulation results show that temperature of an OPK is not the same over the entire surface due to constructive and destructive interferences of MW irradiance. This implies that point measurement of temperature reading is inadequate to determine the temperature history of the OPK during the microwave heating process.

The simulation results also show that arrangement of OPKs in a MW cavity affects the kernel temperature profile. The heating of OPKs were identified to be affected by factors such as local electric field intensity due to MW absorption, refraction, interference, the contact effect between kernels and also heat transfer mechanisms. The thermal gradient patterns of OPKs change as the heating continues.

The cracking of OPKs is expected to occur first in the core of the kernel and then it propagates to the kernel surface. The model is useful. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize A study was conducted to determine the effect of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops.

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Two de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations A and B were compounded from different proportions of de-oiled palm kernel cake, urea, muriate of potash and Mycological deterioration of stored palm kernels recovered from oil Palm kernels obtained from Pioneer Oil Mill Ltd.

Seven 7 different fungal species were isolated by serial dilution plate technique. Effect of Coconut cocus Nucifera and Palm Kernel eleasis At the end of the feeding period, animals were anaesthetized under chloroform vapor, dissected and blood obtained via cardiac puncture into tubes. In several developing countries, briquettes from agricultural residues contribute significantly to the energy mix especially for small scale and household requirements.

In this work, briquettes were produced from Palm kernel shell. This was achieved by carbonising the shell to get the charcoal followed by the pulverization of Nutritional evaluation of fermented palm kernel cake using red tilapia. The use of palm kernel cake PKC and other plant residues in fish feeding especially under extensive aquaculture have been in practice for a long time.

On the other hand, the use of microbial-based feedstuff is increasing. In this study, the performance of red tilapia raised on Trichoderma longibrachiatum fermented PKC Preparation and characterization of active carbon using palm kernel Activated carbons were prepared from Palm kernel shells. Carbonization temperature was C, at a residence time of 5 min for each process.

Chemical activation was done by heating a mixture of carbonized material and the activating agents at a temperature of C to form a paste, followed by subsequent cooling and Large-scale mills have automated hydro-cyclone machines with high separation efficiency, however, clay-baths and hydro cyclones are known for their high energy and water consumption Some physical and mechanical properties of palm kernel shell PKS In this study, some of the mechanical and physical properties of palm kernel shells PKS were evaluated.

These are moisture content, 7.


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  2. United Kingdom (UK): Palm kernel imports 2002/03-2017/18;
  3. Innovations and innovation capability in palm kernel processing industry in southwestern Nigeria!
  4. Effect of roasting on phenolic content and antioxidant activities of whole cashew nuts , kernels , and testa. The effect of roasting on the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of cashew nuts and testa was studied. Whole cashew nuts , subjected to low-temperature LT and high-temperature HT treatments, were used to determine the antioxidant activity of products. Antioxidant activities of cashew nut , kernel , and testa phenolics extracted increased as the roasting temperature increased. Furthermore, roasting increased the total phenolic content TPC in both the soluble and bound extracts from whole nut , kernel , and testa but decreased that of the proanthocyanidins PC except for the soluble extract of cashew kernels.

    In addition, cashew testa afforded a higher extract yield, TPC, and PC in both soluble and bound fractions compared to that in whole nuts and kernels. Phenolic acids, namely, syringic the predominant one , gallic, and p-coumaric acids, were identified. The results so obtained suggest that HT-short time HTST roasting effectively enhances the antioxidant activity of cashew nuts and testa. Optimization of the acceptance of prebiotic beverage made from cashew nut kernels and passion fruit juice. The aim of this research was to develop a prebiotic beverage from a hydrosoluble extract of broken cashew nut kernels and passion fruit juice using response surface methodology in order to optimize acceptance of its sensory attributes.

    As a result of this study, it was possible to obtain a new functional prebiotic product, which combined the nutritional and functional properties of cashew nut kernels and oligofructose with the sensory properties of passion fruit juice in a beverage with satisfactory sensory acceptance. This new product emerges as a new alternative for the industrial processing of broken cashew nut kernels , which have very low market value, enabling this sector to increase its profits.

    Higher level of PKOo content on formulas oil blends were decreased of saponification value and melting point, but was increased of cloud point. Fatty acids composition were 1. Use of palm kernel cake for animal feed. Full Text Available Palm kernel cake PKC, a by-product from the palm -oil industry, has the potential for use as a feed ingredient.

    Kinetics of palm kernel oil and ethanol transesterification.


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    5. Ahiekpor, Julius C. Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, has been identified by government to play a key role in the socio-economic development of Ghana.

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      Despite this great potential and the numerous sources from which biodiesel could be developed in Ghana, there are no available data on the kinetics and mechanisms of transesterification of local vegetable oils. The need for local production of biodiesel necessitates that the mechanism and kinetics of the process is well understood, since the properties of the biodiesel depends on the type of oil use for the transesterification process.

      The objective of this work is to evaluate the appropriate kinetics mechanism and to find out the reaction rate constants for palm kernel oil transesterification with ethanol when KOH was used as a catalyst. In this present work, 16 biodiesel samples were prepared at specified times based on reported optimal conditions and the samples analysed by gas chromatography.

      The experimental mass fractions were calibrated and fitted to mathematical models of different proposed mechanisms in previous works. The rate data fitted well to second-order kinetics without shunt mechanism. It was also observed that, although transesterification reaction of crude palm kernel oil is a reversible reaction, the reaction rate constants indicated that the forward reactions were the most prominent. The maximum production requirement was 40kg per day on the basis of an 8- hour shift.

      The drier is also suitable for drying several agricultural products under varying temperature condition. Key words: control circuit, cabinet drier, agricultural products, temperature, digital display. Physics Vol. Full Text Available An assessment of palm kernel processing and storage in South-Eastern Nigeria was carried out by investigative survey approach.

      The survey basically ascertained the extent of mechanization applicable in the area to enable the palm kernel processors and agricultural policy makers, device the modalities for improving palm kernel processing in the area. It is observable from the results that palm kernel oil extraction has not received much attention in mechanization.

      Zero refining method is not applicable in Anambra state. Plastic containers and metal drums are dominantly used in most areas in south-east Nigeria for the storage of palm kernel oil. Assessment of the microbiological safety of edible roasted nut kernels on retail sale in England, with a focus on Salmonella. There is little published information on the prevalence of Salmonella in edible nut kernels. A study in early of edible roasted nut kernels on retail sale in England was undertaken to assess the microbiological safety of this product.

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      A total of nut kernel samples of different varieties were examined. Overall, Salmonella and Escherichia coli were detected from 0. Of the nut varieties examined, Salmonella Havana was detected from 1 4. The United Kingdom Food Standards Agency was immediately informed, and full investigations were undertaken. Further examination established the contamination to be associated with the pistachio kernels and not the partly opened shells.

      Salmonella was not detected in other varieties tested almonds, Brazils, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts , and walnuts.